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Draft entry by TerryT (opinion)




Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup N:




From closest to Africa to most remote from Africa:



X: Forms X1'2'3 and X4. SW Asia, into North Africa. X2 is the most widespread. X2 to America and it makes up 7% of Sahariya tribals of Madhya Pradesh (1).

N3: Iran, Marsh Arabs.  

N1'5: Forms N1 and N5. N1 West Eurasia, N5 South Asia. N5 makes up 25% of the Sahariya, the northernmost ofthe Madhya Pradesh tribals. (1).

N2: Forms N2a and W. West Eurasia. W very rare in Madhya Pradesh tribals (1).


A: East and, especially, Central Asia. A2 to America. A5b to Laos (2).


N9: Forms N9a, N9b and Y. East Asia from Mongolia to Japan. N9a to Laos (2).


N10: Southeast China (4).


N8: South China.


N11: South China (4).


N7: Cambodia.


N21: Thailand, Cambodia, Sumatra, Laos.  Probably from Sumatra.  (2) (3) (6).


N22: Malay, Laos.  Orang Asli.  (2) (6).


R: Southern Wallacea.


N13: Australia.  Kimberly region.  (7). 


N14: Australia.  Kimberly region.  (7). 


S: Australia.  Widespread.  (7). 


O: Australia.  Especially in Central Australia.  (7). 



References:

1)

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0032546

2)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050724/

3)

http://mitotool.org/lab/pdf/MBE2010%20Peng-Cham%20paper.pdf

4)

http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/513.full

5)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20623602

6)

http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0002929711005453/1-s2.0-S0002929711005453-main.pdf?_tid=0d552c56-7977-11e2-9ff1-00000aacb362&acdnat=1361156480_cf82ae9b09a0f34d6156ea6ed99257f1


7)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618211002278



General references:

http://www.phylotree.org/tree/main.htm

http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_N_(mtDNA)

http://www.picb.ac.cn/~xushua/index.files/Publications/2008_EJHG_16_705-717.pdf

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