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Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M:




From closest to Africa to most remote from Africa:


Difficult to make a case for a South Asian origin for this haplogroup. Nor any movement along the coast.  It has an extreme west/east spread but is hardly present through South Asia at all. (3) (4) (11) (12):

M1'20'51: M1 SW Asia, North Africa, M20 South China, Vietnam. M51 Laos, Nepal.


The following are the only haplogroups that might indicate a coastal entry into South Asia from the west.  (1) (2) (14):

M44: West/Central India. Minority haplogroup.

M34'57: M34 Central India to Orissa, M57 west of M34.


But they may actually be part of the next cluster.  The following haplogroups all almost certainly originated somewhere in Central India, and spread from there. Rather than being scattered along a 'main' route east they look to be a side shoot that moved south from Rajasthan into Madhya Pradesh. (1) (2) (6) (9) (14):

M3: Central and Western India, incl. Pakistan. Widespread. Minor presence in Orissa and NE India.

M6: Central India from Orissa to Kashmir and Northern Pakistan. Minor presence east of Bihar.

M25: Central and Western India. Very minor presence in Arunachal Pradesh (Dirang Monpa).

M36: Central India and Andhra Pradesh. Minor presence.

M35: Central India. Minor presence in Orissa and NE India.

M5: Central India to Orissa and Bihar. Widespread, including Nepal. Minor presence in NE India.

M2: Central India to Orissa, Bihar and Bangladesh. 10% of Indian haplogroups belong here.


The next haplogroup is probably part of the previous group too. Members of it spread into Orissa and NE India, and even further. (1) (2) (9) (12) (14):

M467: Central India. Widespread, including Pakistan and Nepal. (M45 to South China).


Again Central India, although the earliest branches are claimed as being in Arunachal Pradesh. (1) (4):

M52'58: India, earliest branches of M58 in the Wanchoo of the Indian far northeast. M52 in Nepal.


Then we move to haplogroups that appear to have originated near the previous haplogroup. (1) (2) (4) (9) (12) (14):

M48: Northeast India, 11% of Austro-Asiatic speaking Khasi.

M60: Northeast India. Minor haplogroup.


Here we have haplogroups in India and, through the hills, into South China (1) (2) (9) (10) (11) (12) (14):

M33: Central and Northeast India. Nepal. Also South China. Minor presence in Bihar and Vietnam.

M39'70: M39 Central and East India from Uttar Pradesh to Orissa. M70 South China?

M40'62: M40 Central India, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Bihar. M62 East Asia. M62b Tibet.

M49: India, especially Orissa and the northeast (Khasi). Also South China.

M50: SE Asia and China, NE India (Khasi).


The next group looks to have developed, and remained for some time, in the hill country along the NE India/Burma/Yunnan/Laos border region. It is virtually impossible to make a case for them having entered there via a coastal migration though. On the other hand some eventually reached the East Eurasian coast (3) (4) (10) (11) (12):

M76: South China.

M13'46'61: M13 China, Tibet, M46 island Southeast Asia, M61 Laos to NE India.

M10: East Asia. Vietnam. Minor presence in Northeast India. Not recorded in Laos.

M71: Laos, South China, Vietnam, island SE Asia. Diverse in Laos.


The following haplogroups fanned out north and northeast into East Asia from the NE India/Burma/Yunnan hills. As with the previous group it is virtually impossible to make a case for them having entered the region via the coast. Their presence in India and/or SE Asia (including Vietnam and Laos) looks most likely to be the product of later movement southeast and south from within China (1) (3) (4) (9) (10) (11) (12):

M11: Tibet and China, to Japan. Minor presence in India.

M8: East Asia, SE Asia incl. Vietnam and Laos. Includes C/Z. M8 in NE India. C1 in America.

M9: East Asia, incl. Vietnam. NE India, incl. Nepal. Includes E, island SE Asia.

M12'G: East Asia, from Japan to Laos. G in Nepal, Vietnam. Minor presence of both in India.

M7: East Asia, SE Asia, Vietnam. M7a in Japan. M7b Laos.


This next haplogroup looks to have moved east from the NE India/Burma/Yunnan hills, and then expanded right through East Asia from Palawan (M80) north through Vietnam, Laos and China, to Mongolia and Japan, and beyond. (3) (4) (9) (10) (11) (12):

M80'D: M80 Palawan, D right through East Asia, SE Asia. D in NE India, Tibet. D1 in America.


These haplogroups string out south along the SE Asian peninsula from the NE India/Burma/Yunnan hills . (3) (11) (12) (15):

M72: South China, SE Asia.

M21: Thailand, Bangladesh. Semang tribals. M21a Malay Negritos.  M21b Nepal. M21d Laos.

M77: Thailand.

M22: Aboriginal Malays, Vietnam and South China.


These ones ventured further, out into the islands (3) (11):

M23'75: Southeast Asia. M23 in Laos and Madagascar.

M47: Island Southeast Asia (Sumatra evidently, very rare).

M26: Sumatra.

M17: Philippines, SE Asia.

M73'79: M73 Philippines and SE Asia (incl. Laos), M79 South China.


Next an interesting connection between Australia and the Eurasian mainland (4) (12) (13) (16):

M42'74: M42 The Riverine region of Australia and the Munda-speakers of India, M74 South China (including Hainan), Vietnam.


The next batch of haplogroups looks to have spread around the shores of the Bay of Bengal. A coastal migration in fact. (2) (5) (14):

M19'53: M19 Palawan (Philippines), M53 Orissa and Central India.

M24'41: M24 Palawan (Philippines), M41 Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Central India.

M31: East and NE India (M31b'c), Tibet, Nepal (M31b), Andamans (M31a1), Orissa (M31a2).

M32'56: M32a Andamans, M32c Madagascar, M56 minor presence in Central India.


Then a leap across Wallace's Line to Sahul. The basal haplogroup M28 is especially common in Melanesia, much of which it can only have reached some 4-5000 years ago (7) (8) (16):

M14: Australia.  Northern Territory and Arnhem Land.  

M15: Australia.  Kimberly and Arnhem Land. 

M29'Q: M29 Bismarks to New Caledonia. Q New Guinea to Fiji. Q3 confined to New Guinea.

M27: Melanesia. Bismarks to New Caledonia.

M28: Melanesia. Bismarks to Central Polynesia.



References:

1)

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007447

2)

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0032546

3)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050724/

4)

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/46

5)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1673852711000324

6)

http://dspace.utlib.ee/dspace/bitstream/handle/10062/567/karmin.pdf?sequence=5

7)

http://www.pnas.org/content/102/37/13034.full

8)

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000248

9)

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001141

10)

https://viewer.zoho.com/docs/kbHuq

11)

http://mitotool.org/lab/pdf/MBE2010%20Peng-Cham%20paper.pdf

12)

http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/513.full

13)

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/9/173

14)

http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/Vol88No1/127.pdf

15)

http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/12/2480.full.pdf

16)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618211002278


General references:


http://www.phylotree.org/tree/main.htm

http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf

http://www.picb.ac.cn/~xushua/index.files/Publications/2008_EJHG_16_705-717.pdf




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